New data shows majority of children surveyed in East Mosul are working in unsafe conditions, 95% of children missing key identification documents, and more than half of households surveyed having one or more children engaged in labor.
Slow economic recovery post-conflict is causing families to resort to relying on child labor, as Iraqi children miss out on fundamental childhood rights.
Erbil, Kurdistan Region of Iraq, November 20, 2022 — On World Children’s Day, an alarming spike in rates of child labor in Iraq continues to deprive children of their basic rights as families run out of options to meet basic needs, the International Rescue Committee (IRC) in Iraq reports.
In a new survey conducted in five areas of East Mosul the IRC observed that 90% of caregivers reported having one or more children engaged in labor. While 85% of children reported that they did not feel safe in their place of work, describing instances of harassment and not having proper equipment to protect themselves during work in factories or on the streets. Almost five years after the declared end of conflict, economic conditions in Mosul remain dire for many families, including those who are displaced within the country and those who have returned to their areas of origin having been displaced during the conflict.
The IRC surveyed 211 households in al-90, al-Intisar, Arabachiya, al-Samah and al-Yarmja neighborhoods in East Mosul and conducted additional surveys with 265 children who had been identified as engaged in child labor. The results showed that child labor is a common negative coping mechanism for families in these areas, who are struggling to rebuild their lives due to limited livelihood opportunities, missing documentation -such as national ID cards or birth certificates-, and poor living conditions.
The survey findings demonstrated that:
- Child labor rates were highest in returnee households, with more than 50% reporting one or more children engaged in work activities. For those who remain displaced, more than 25% of households reported one or more child participating in labor, and for host community households the percentage reporting child labor was over 20%.
- 95% of children reported missing necessary civil documentation, such as birth certificates and national identification cards, which allow them to enroll in school and access social services.
- Around 75% of the children surveyed reported working in informal and dangerous roles such as trash collection, daily construction labor, and collecting scrap metals.
- Caregivers reported that nearly half the children in their households were not attending school, with many stating child labor as a leading cause of dropouts.
The conditions linked to the prevalence of child labor in East Mosul are present throughout Iraqi governorates that experienced conflict. Following the end of the conflict with ISIS, lack of civil documentation and slow economic recovery have been reported in Anbar, Kirkuk, and Salah al-Din by other IRC clients.
Samar Abboud, the IRC’s Country Director in Iraq said:
“When families are unable to meet their basic needs, sometimes their last resort is sending their child to work. We know that child labor puts children in harm’s way and leads to long-term effects on their physical and mental well-being. When children are working, they are robbed of the chance to experience a normal and safe childhood.”
Families reported several reasons for their children working, including the inability to meet costs of schooling, overwhelming need for income to support basic family expenditures such as food and shelter, schools not allowing enrollment due to missing documentation or societal stigma around perceived affiliation with members of the group known as ISIS. Families with perceived affiliation often face difficulties reintegrating into their areas of origin or new communities, and this can cause children to feel unwelcome in schools or even prevent families from going through the arduous enrollment processes.
Salma, a displaced caregiver from Shekhan now living in Al-Arbachiya, East Mosul, spoke to IRC about her children’s labor as waste collectors:
“I feel sad and depressed because my children are now different from the rest of the children. When I see other children going to school and wearing clean and good clothes, this makes me very sad.”
Instead of going to their local school Salma shared that the family had to make the tough decision to send their children to work in order to supplement the family’s limited income.
Children engaged in labor are at high risk of disrupted education which can significantly affect their development and life chances. They also face social stigma and isolation and are at greater risk of protection concerns including abuse and harassment.
Mohammed was forced to drop out of school at age 9 and now, at age 14, works in waste collection. He told IRC that he has not been in school for five years and does not wish to re-enroll:
“Because of the economic situation and displacement, I have no desire [to re-enroll]; I need to support my family and there is no one else to help them.” He added, “I don’t like this work, but I need to work.”
Iraq is a signatory to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and enshrines mandatory primary education for all children in its constitution. Despite the protections for Iraqi children in law, the reality is far different for many children across the country. This World Children’s Day the IRC calls on the Iraqi government to greater ensure that its laws protecting children from labor are enforced, and that a particular focus is placed on enrolling children who remain without civil documentation more than 5 years since the end of the conflict.
The organization also calls on the international community, including the UN, international NGOs, and donors, to scale-up programming that appropriately addresses child harm in Iraq, including child labor. While also working with the Iraqi Government to address the root causes that continue to lead to dangerous child labor practices.
Notes to editors:
- The IRC in Iraq provides children protection services to vulnerable children and caregivers in Nineveh such as individualized case management, psychosocial support, school enrollment support and referrals to positive parenting programs for caregivers. In 2022, IRC Iraq’s Child and Youth protection team delivered services to 18,200 individuals.
- The IRC has worked in Iraq since 2003, providing humanitarian aid and assistance to communities affected by conflict. We currently work across Federal Iraq to deliver multi-sectoral interventions to support internal displaced people, returnees, and host communities.
- Civil documentation is critical for school-aged children. Without key identification documents, children cannot enroll in school and, in instances where they attend classes without formal enrollment, are not granted certificates allowing them to move through the grade system or the ability to receive exam results. For further information see our recent report, “Life on the Margins”.