This Protection Needs Overview documents findings from protection monitoring efforts conducted between October 2022 and March 2023 in the Iraqi governorates of Anbar, Kirkuk, Ninewa, and Salah al-Din. This report details protection concerns of communities experiencing displacement, those who have returned to their areas of origin, and host communities more than five years after the defeat of the so-called ISIS group in Iraq and is the follow-on to the Protection Needs Overview: April-September 2022.

The UN-led humanitarian country team and cluster system in Iraq has now transitioned to a jointly coordinated, humanitarian-peacebuilding-nexus response led by the Government of Iraq in partnership with the UN, humanitarian, and development actors. Despite the transition, needs remain high and nearly 1.2 million people remain internally displaced in both in-camp and out-of-camp settings. Many of these IDPs represent so-called ‘complex cases’ who require tailored solutions to ensure their ability to achieve durable solutions to their displacement. IDP and returnee/host community households are all impacted by ongoing humanitarian needs, with an emphasis on shelter, livelihoods, legal support, and healthcare.

Against this backdrop, the need for active monitoring of the protection and legal rights environment is critical. The IRC aims to collect relevant and timely data to better inform our operations, our engagement with the Government, and our collaborations with other implementing partners. This report is based on 625 household level surveys, 278 key informant interviews, and 158 focus group discussions comprised of over 1,000 individuals.